Economy overview

After gaining independence the Republic of Tajikistan has been implementing a consistent economic policy directed towards establishing a market economy. Through these policy measures Tajikistan has succeeded in reaching macroeconomic stability and relatively high pace of economic growth.

Economic trends.
Tajikistan achieved significant progress in economic reforms, restructuring its national economy and strengthening international links. External trade and currency operations are liberalized. Small and medium business enterprises are fully privatized; restructuring and corporatization of big state enterprises are underway.

The government is attracting essential investments in road construction, development of the energy sector and mining industry. Significant attention is being paid to civil construction, services and trade. According to forecasts, due to the development of private sector and the growing household incomes, the country is expecting high economic growth.

It is also expected that the attracted investments will lead to growing outputs in the real sectors of economy. This will enable diversification of Tajikistan’s export potential, which at present heavily depends on aluminum and cotton industries.
Economic growth
Since 1997, Tajikistan’s economy has been experiencing constant growth. In 2008 the GDP growth in real prices reached 7.9 percent.

The domestic demand remains at a relatively high level, owing to growing salaries and high inflow of remittances from labor migrants working abroad.

Despite the impact of the global economic crisis, in 2009 the country managed to sustain positive dynamics of economic growth (3.4 percent of GDP).

External trade
Tajikistan’s external trade turnover in 2008 amounted to 4,676.2 USD, which is 16.5 percent higher compared to the level of 2007.

Aluminum accounts for more than a half of export income; the shares of hydropower, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil and textile are also high.

These products are exported mostly to the following countries: the Netherlands – 37 percent; Turkey – 27 percent; Russia – 9 percent; Iran – 7 percent; China – 6 percent; and Uzbekistan – 5 percent.

Tajikistan imports the following products: electricity, oil products, aluminum dioxide, cars and machinery and food commodities. The main import partners are: Russia – 32 percent, China – 12 percent, Kazakhstan – 9 percent, Uzbekistan – 5 percent, Iran and Turkey – 4 percent each.
Automobile transport
The auto transport accounts for more than 90 percent of the total volume of passenger transportation and more than 80 percent of internal transportation of commodities. The total length of roads in the country is 27.8 thousand kilometers.

For the purpose of developing a transport network within the country and for access to international transcontinental highways, Tajikistan is implementing a number of major investment projects, such as: rehabilitation of the highway Dushanbe – Chanak (Uzbek border), Dushanbe – Kulma (Chinese border and access to the Karrakorum highway), Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border). Construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar and Chormazak is underway.

Railway transport
The total length of railways in Tajikistan is 943 kilometers, out of which the main routes account for 678 kilometers. The main segments of railways are located in the southern regions of the country; they connect the capital with the industrial areas of the Gissar and Vakhsh valleys and with the outer world.

Most international freight traffic activities are carried out by railways.

The recently constructed railway Kurgan-Tube – Kulyab has connected the Kulyab region with the central area of the country.

Passenger railway transport is used for both intercity and international travel. 

Air transport
Connections by air are established by airplanes of domestic airlines “Tajik Air”, “Somon Air” and by other national and foreign air companies. The country has two large airports with runways of more than 3 kilometers in length, and four airports with runways of more than 2.5 kilometers in length.

The local companies “Tajik Air” and “Somon Air” perform regular flights from Tajikistan to Munich, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Sharjah, Tehran, Urumqi, Dubai, Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Almaty, Bishkek and other destinations around the world.

Nine mobile operators work in Tajikistan using the GSM and CDMA cellular communication standards. “Babilon”, “Indigo”, “M-Teko”, “Saturn Online” and “Telecom Technology LTD” are the biggest providers of telecommunication and Internet services.